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Antimicrobial activity of propolis: 

The antimicrobial activity of propolis against a wide range of bacteria, fungi, yeasts and viruses has been investigated since the late 1940s and it showed variable activity against different microorganisms.

a- Antibacterial activity :

Chernyak (1973) tested the bactericidal activity of propolis towards 20 staphylococcus, 10 streptococcus and 10 E. coli cultures using concentrations of 1.25-5 mg propolis/ml, it showed strong inhibitory activity against 25 of tested bacterial species. Many researchers had investigated the antibacterial activity of propolis and its extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains and found that propolis had antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-positive rods but had a limited activity against Gram-negative bacilli (Prado-Filho et al., 1962; Scheller et al., 1968; Vokhonina et al., 1969; Akopyan et al., 1970 and Grecianu & Enciu, 1976). The bactericidal effect of propolis was tested by Spataru and Frasinel (1963), who found that it had a bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus and E. coli strains at concentrations of 1.5-3 mg/ml, on Shiga Bacillus and Pyoceanic Bacillus at 6 mg/ml; on Sonne Bacillus at 1.5 mg/ml and on Salmonella strains at 3-5 mg/ml. Also, the minimum inhibitory concentration of propolis against 35 S. aureus strains and 92 other bacterial strains were determined by Gizmarik and Trupl (1976a). Scheller and co-workers (1977c) found 19 elements in propolis, 3 fractions were obtained and tested against Staphylococcus. In another experiment, Scheller et al. (1977d) found that the sensitivity of 90% of Staphylococci to ethanolic extract of propolis was lower than in a standard strain of S. aureus. Shub et al. (1978) prepared ethanolic extracts from samples of propolis collected in 18 regions of the USSR. These extracts were serially diluted in agar, in petri dishes. The dishes were then inoculated with the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus auneus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeraginosa, and the fungus Candida albicans, and incubated at 37 oC or 20-25 oC for 48h. Propolis at 125-500 ug/ml inhibited the growth of B.Cereus and S. aureus, but usually not that of the other 2 bacteria, or the fungus, even at concentrations higher than 1000 ug/ml. Kovalik, P.V. (1979) investigated 12 patients (35-62 years old) sufferning from chronic sinusitis, caused by Candida albicans. Invitro tests the fungus was sensitive to propolis in 8 cases, weak by sensitive where 2 were and resistant. The patients were treated with an alcohol-oil emulsion of propolis. The emulsion ( 2-4 ml) was introduced into the sinuses after irrigation with isotonic saline ( every day or every second day) . After 1-2 treatments with propolis, there was an improvement in the condition of patients after 5-8 treatments, clinical recovery occured in 9 and improvement in 3 patients. Recovery occurred after 10-17 days. Ghisalberti (1979) tested propolis samples and concluded that it showed strong inhibitory activity against 25 of 39 tested bacterial species including Bacillus larvae which were most strongly inhibited. Other 24 strains were sensitive including Gram-positive cocci and acid-fast rods.

Malimon et al. (1980) demonstrated a relationship between polyphenols content in alcoholic extracts of propolis (AEP) and their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus 8035. In 91% of cases a high polyphenols content (59% or higher) was associated with significant antimicrobial activity. Spectrophotometric characteristics of AEP may serve as irreverence index of the antimicrobial activity of raw propolis.

Meresta et al (1980) determined minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for 4 propolis extracts in various liquid and solid media, at pH values from 5.0 to 9.0. Between pH 6.0 and 6.8, the activity was stable and values were MIC, 60 Mg/ml, and MBC, 120 Mg/ml. Results were similar for al extracts. At higher values of pH, bactericidal activity decreased. Glinnik et al. (1981) found that, purified propolis in laud 5% solutions in ethanol inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and in vitro. Application of 010% solution to ear, nose and throat infections caused in human subjects by various bacterial pathogens gave highly effective therapeutic effects. Thus a 10% alcoholic solution of propolis is recommended for use in treating rhinolaryngeal infections.

Glinnik and Gapanovich (1981) showed that, in chickens, propolis was effective against S. aureus and S. epidermidis in vitro. The activity of propolis against Bacillus cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, P. auerignosa and Candida albicans was tested. Olivieri et al (1981) found that propolis (2-20%) Solution in isopropyl alcohol, equivalent to 4-40mg total flavone / ml) had inhibitory activity in vitro against a number of species of Gram positive bacteria and against some fungi and yeasts, but it was inactive against the Gram-negative bacteria tested. Shub et al (1981) tested 106 strains of S. aureus all of them were susceptible to 0.5-1.0 mg propolis/ml. strains resistant to benzyl/penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were sensitive to propolis. Propolis had a synergistic effect when combined with any of the 3 antibiotics used against the antibiotic resistant strains.

Pepeljnjak et al. (1982) found that, for pure propolis extracts, a concentration of 1530 mg/ml was needed to inhibit the growth of candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus, Penicillium viridicatum and P. notatum. Pepeljnjak et al. (1982) found that, propolis concentrations of 0.25-2.0 mg/ml inhibited growth of A. sulphureus for up to 10 days, but only the highest concentration showed definite fungicidal activity. Ochratoxin was detected in all cultures media, but its concentration was low at the first 10 days. Compared with the control culture, amounts of Ochratoxin A were directly proportional to the growth of A. sulphureus, and inversely to the propolis concentration. Pepeljnjak et al. (1982) analyzed ethanol extracts of 31 propolis samples by TLC. The same 15 components were identified in most samples. The results varied quantitatively in growth inhibition tests of the B. subtitles. The greatest inhibition was shown by extracts that had a comparatively high galangin content.

Ibragimova et al (1983) used Staphylococcus epidermidis as are preventative sample of 14 types of staphylococci isolated from the milk of cows affected by mastitis. Sensitivity of microbial cultures to 6 types of antibiotic was compared for culture media containing propolis or no propolis. The presence of propolis prevented or reduced any gradual build-up in tolerance of staphylococci to antibiotics. Meresta and Meresta (1983) extracted propolis samples from apiaries in different regions of Poland using a combination of equal quantities of acetone, ethyl alcohol, ethyl ether and ethylacetate.

Bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions of the extracts were tested using Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentration of extracts ranged from 60 Mg/ml to 430 Mg/ml; minimal bactericidal concentration of extracts ranged from 110 Mg/ml to 1380 Mg/ml. of the 149 propolis samples, 68% were classified as having good antibacterial activity. Giurgea et al. (1983) found that in rats fed with a standard propolis extract together with Escherichia coli antigen, there was an increase in the formation of antibodies compared with rats not receiving propolis. Jozwik et al. (1985) obtained propolis directly from beekeepers, or purchased from a shop, in Dublin, Poland.

The biological activity of certain fractions of ethanolic propolis extracts, measured by inhibition of growth of 5 Mycobacterium species, was proportional to the concentration of flavonoids in the fraction. The strain Mycobacterium sp. 279 was the most sensitive to flavonoids and was therefore useful in comparative tests. The lowest concentration of flavonoids at which inhibition was observed was 0.00996 mg/ml. Meresta et al (1985) examined the sensitivity of 75 bacterial strains to propolis extracts. Of these, 69 were isolated from cows with mastitis, and were identified as staphylococcus spp. and streptococcus spp. All the strains displayed a high sensitivity to propolis extracts usually of the same order or higher than that of the standard strain Staphylococcus oureus 209P (oxford). Pepeljnjak et al. (1985) analyzed thirty-eight propolis samples, collected from various parts of Croatia, Yugoslavia. Considerable variants were found between samples – even from the same region in the number of constituents present, and their amounts. Some samples, which contained almost no. 3,5,7-trihydroxy flavone (galangin) and relatively small amounts of 5,7 -dihydroxy flavone (pinocembrine), showed low inhibition of Bacillus subtitles growth. Samples with the highest pinocembrine content (about 80 Mg/ml ethanols extract) showed the highest inhibition and it was found that pinocembrine content and bacterial inhibitions were related. Such a relationship between galangin content and inhibition was also found but was less pronounced.

Valdes Gonzales et al. (1985) stated that alcoholic extracts of propolis inhibited the growth of various bacteria, including strains of streptococcus and Bacillus. Several UV-absorbing substances inhibiting the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases of Escherichia coli and Streptomyces aureofaciens, as well as the restriction endonucleases Eco RI have been isolated from the water-soluble extract of propolis by two dimensional paper chromatography. The inhibition of bacterial RNA-polymerase by the components of propolis was probably due to the loss of their ability to bind to DNA (Simuth et al., 1986). Kedzia, A. (1986) determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ethanol extract of propolis to 112 strains of anaerobic bacteria. EEP showed the greatest effectiveness against strains of Bacteroids and peptostreptococcus; of 37 strains examined, 18 were inhibited at 0.01-0.50 mg/ml. EEP was slightly less effective against the Gram- positive rods of propionibacterium, Arachinia and Eubacterium (MIC 0.50-1.00 mg/ml). Strains of clostridium were the least sensitive to EED.

Tothne and Papay (1987) examined the biological activities of samples of Hungarian propolis. They found propolis included anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and local anaesthetic effects. Propolis inhibited growth of resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. They used Hungarian propolis in producing pharmaceutical products.

Petri et al. (1988) found that propolis sample from 20 locations in Hungary contained from 0.3 to 1.5-% essential oils. The 11componeuts of the oil fraction were the same for all samples but the ratios of the components differed In microbiological tests, propolis oil showed good to moderate activity against Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria and against 3 fungi. Abdulsalam et al (1989) collected propolis sample from honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies housed in Langstroth hives at Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A propolis- ethanol mixture (1:15) was prepared.

The unfractionated extract (PEE) was then used to find out it antimicrobial activities on 13 bacterial species (5 Gram- positive, 8 Gram-negative). Eight extract levels, 50-2000 ppm, were incorporated into dextrose-yeast extract medium. All Gram-positive species were inhibited by 100 ppm PEE in the medium (Bacillus cereus, B. subtitles, Staphylococcus aureus, and S. epidermis and Streptococcus pyogenes) of the Gram-negative species, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris were inhibited at 400 ppm, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Serratia sp. at 800 ppm. The other 3 species (Eschericia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhymurium) were inhibited at 1200 ppm of PEE.

Meresta et al (1989) treated acute mastitis in 146 cows using propolis extract. Complete healing occurred in 125 cows, including all the cases caused by Candida albicans, 91% of cases caused by staphylococci, 85% caused by Eschericia coli. And 84.3% caused by streptococci. Propolis was very effective in the therapy of mastitis caused by microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. Milena et al (1989) reviewed the sources, and chemical, physical and biological properties of propolis. The activity of a 10% ethanolic extract of propolis against 17 fungal pathogens was compared with that of Mylyt, and E. German propolis- containing preparation. The propolis extract inhibited conclida and all tested dermatophytes. Mylyt did not inhibit Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium notatum or scopulariopsis brevicaulis of 7 components of propolis tested for autifungal activity, only benzoic acid, Salicylic acid and Vanillin were strongly fungistatic. Grange et al. (1990) tested onethanolic extract of propolis on 21 bacterial strains. It showed antibacterial activity against arange of commonly evcountered cocci and Gram-positive rods, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but only limited activity against Gram-negative bacilli.

Grange and Davey (1990) found that propolis have antibacterial activity against a range of commonly encountered cocci and Gram-positive rods, including the human tubercle bacillus, but only limited activity against Gram-negative bacilli. These findings confirm that, the antimicrobial properties of propolis possibly attributed to its high flavonoid content. Brumfilt et al. (1990) discovered that the material extracted from propolis by alkaline aqueous solvent or organic solvent showed weak inhibitory activity in vitro against certain species of Gram-positive bacteria. Focht, et al (1993) studied the bactericidal effect of propolis in vitro against agents causing upper respiratory tract infections. Krol et al (1993) incubated ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) with 8 common antibiotics in culture medium containing fixed amount of standard strain of staphylococcus aureus. The antibiotic compounds used were: penicillin G, doxycycline, streptomycin, cloxacillin, chloramphenicol, ceffradine, ampicillin and polymyxin B. They were used in varying levels, ranging between 0.000005 and 125.0 Mg/ml or units, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were established in the absence of EEP, than EEP was added in concentrations up to 600 Mg/ml. EEP had marked synergistic effect on the antibacterial activity of streptomycin and cloxacillin, and cloxacillin, and a moderate synergistic effect on the others, except ampicillin. Rojas Hernandez et al. (1993) evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of propolis against 30 clinical strains of Mycobacterium and the inhibitory and bactericidal minimum concentrations (IMC and BMC, respectively) were determined for 1 and 7 days of treatment. Al mycobacterium strains with the exception of M. tuberculosis were inhibited with 1.0 mg/ml propolis only 30% of the M. tuberculosis strains tested were inhibited by 2.0-5.o-mg/ml propolis.

The difference in BMC for 1 and 7 days of treatment was not significant. Aga et al. (1994) isolated three antimicrobial compounds from Brazilian Propolis and identified them as 3,5 diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3-prenyl – 4dihdrocinnamoloxycinnamic acid and 2,2-dimethyl -6- carboxyethenyl- 2H-1benzopyran. Their respective antimicrobial activities, expressed as MIC in Mg/ml, against Bacillus cereus were 15.6, 31.3 and 125; against Enterobacter erogenous, 31.3, 62.5 and 125; and against Arthroderma benhamiae, 15.6, 7250, and 62.5 thus the first compound showed the highest activity and is likely to be one of the major antimicrobial compounds in Brazilian propolis.

Takasi et al. (1994) stated that propolis inhibits bacterial growth by preventing cell division, thus resulting in the formation of pseudo-multicellular streptococci. In addition, propolis disorganized the cytoplasm, the cytoplasmic membrane and the cell wall, caused a partial bacteriolysis and inhibited protein synthesis. It was evidenced that the mechanism of action of propolis on bacterial cell is complex and a simple analogy can not be made to the mode of action of any classic antibiotics. Microcalorimetric and electron microscopic studies on the mode of the antibacterial action of propolis inhibits bacterial growth by preventing cell division, thus resulting in the formation of pseudo-multicellular streptococci. In addition, propolis disorganized the cytoplasm, the cytoplasmic membrane and the cell wall, caused a partial bacteriolysis and inhibited protein synthesis. It was evidenced that the mechanism of action of propolis on bacterial cells is complex and a simple analogy cannot be made to the mode of action of any classic antibiotics (Takasi et al., 1994). Higashi and De Castro (1995), studied the ethanolic (EEP) and dimethyl-sulphoxide extracts (DEP) of propolis, for their anti-protozoan properties and found that they were active against the different forms of the parasite studied. Total lysis of blood stream trypomastigotes was observed after 24 hr in the presence of EEP at a concentration of 100 ìg/ml. The effect was found to be temperature-dependent. Treatment of infected peritoneal macrophages and heart muscle cells with EEP strongly inhibited infection levels.

Grochowski et al (1996) carried out experiments on a group of 64 mice with burns that had been artificially infected with P. aeruginosa. After 24h, mice from the experimental group (A) were treated daily with 3% propolis ointment containing Soya oil, dehydrated butter, fresh dehydrated pork fat and beeswax. Mice in the control group (B) were left untreated. In-group A, the barns took 7-13 days to heal completely in 85% of the mice, and up to 16 days in 11% of mice. In-group B, the burns healed in 14-18 days in 84% of the mice; 4 mice died within that period. Other experiments showed that the ointment medium was important as the propolis; Vaseline and lanolin ointments containing propolis, Vaseline and lanolin ointments containing propolis were much less effective than the ointment used in A.

Hegazi et al., (2000) investigated three propolis samples from Austria, Germany and France by GC/MS, where eleven compounds were being new for propolis. The samples showed some similarities in their qualitative composition. phenylethyl-trans-caffeate, benzyl ferulate and galangin were predominant in German propolis. Benzyl caffeate was predominant in French sample. pinocembrin was predominant in French and Austrian propolis and trans-p-coumaric acid was predominant in all samples.

The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans was evaluated. German propolis showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli,. While Austrian propolis has the highest activity against Candida albicans. French propolis was effective against all pathogens but less than German and Austrian propolis.

 

Melia Propolis

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The biochemical aspects of propolis:

Kleinrok et al. (1978) injected propolis intraperitoneally in mice and they found that ethanolic extract of propolis had a weak general effect on the experimental animals. Propolis has different pharmacological activities, Giurgea et al. (1981) reported that daily administration of 20 mg/100 g b.wt. standard propolis extract(SPE) to chicken for 15 days increased plasma total protein and gamma-globulin content. They suggested also that propolis has an anabolic effect and stimulated the immunologic processes. They also reported that daily administration of 20 mg propolis extract to chickens for 15 days changed the blood concentration of cholesterol, transaminase (ALT & AST), total proteins and amino acids. It also stimulated the immune system. In another study, Giurgea et al. (1982) reported that chicken fed on propolis extract showed a significant increase in serum total protein and a slight reduction in the glycogen level of lymphatic organs.

Spectrophotometric study showed that propolis contains large amount of flavonoids and proteins. Interaction of purified propolis in vitro with serum albumin or human serum proteins caused conformational changes in the protein and increased ceruloplasmin activity (Olinescu et al., 1982). Giurgea et al. (1984) found that daily administration of propolis extract to chickens caused a marked increase in the myofibril, protein fraction and muscle total protein when compared to corresponding control. They also stated that, propolis extract affects the levels of  cholesterol, transaminase activity, total protein, gamma globulins and free amino acids. They found increases in gamma globulins and proteins and suggested that propolis had an anabolic effect, and that it stimulated the body’s immune response. Amoros et al. (1994) investigated in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 of 3-methyl-but-2-enyl caffeate isolated from poplar buds. They found that this compound, as a minor constituent of propolis, reduce the virus titres by 3 Log10 and viral DNA synthesis by 32 folds. Yamanchi et al. (1992) measured antioxidative activity of balsams by its inhibition of methyl linoleate autoxidation. The balsam from a simple of Chinese propolis was the most antioxidative and the main component responsible for this property was identified as benzyl caffeate. HPLC showed that the amounts of benzyl caffeate in the propolis balsams varied from nil (not detected) to 160 mg/g. Krol et al. (1990) suggested that antioxidative capacity of propolis is partly due to its high flavonoid contents.Hegazi et al. (1997) showed that, administration of Egyptian and Bulgarian propolis induces an antibacterial activity in vivo as well as in vitro. The ethanolic extract of propolis has a weak general effect on estimated parameters in normal rats and it is not a toxic substance. Both types of propolis exerted an anabolic effect for protein synthesis by liver cells. Both types of infections with S. aureus and E. coli caused an increase in the activity in serum AST and ALT and consequently decrease their activity in the liver. On the other hand, the activity of ALT and AST returned to the control level after administration of propolis in rats infected with S. aureus and E. coli. Propolis tends to normalize the serum total lipids in infected rats.

Biological activity of propolis:

Propolis stimulated mammalian tissue regeneration, as it caused strong activation of mitosis of cells cultured in vitro and it enhanced protein biosynthesis (Scheller et al., 1977a, Popeskovic et al., 1977 and Gabrys et al., 1986). Extracts from propolis were investigated for cytostatic activity in vitro by Scheller et al. (1977b and 1978a). Chemical and pharmacological study of propolis from various locations were investigated by Papay et al(`1997). Experimental work of Stojko et al. (1978) and Haldon et al. (1980) showed that propolis accelerated osteogenetic process and the regenerative process of different tissues. Matsuno (1992 and 1997) isolated the tumoricidal substances from Brazilian propolis. Strehl et al. (1994) showed that ethanolic and aqueous extracts of propolis indicated substantial anti-inflammatory functions as well as antibiotic activities where the aqueous extract of propolis inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, this inhibitory activity may at least partially be due to the content of caffeic acid. Krol et al. (1990) suggested that ethanolic extract of peopolis (EEP) has remarkable medical properties, including protection of mice against gamma-irradiation. They said that this anti-oxidative effect is partially due to its high content of flavonoids. The diethyl ether fraction from Egyptian propolis methanol extract revealed the presence of phenolic ester present as a major constituent. The effect of Egyptian propolis on chicken body weight and lymphoid organs revealed an increase in body weight after one week post injection and increase thymus weight after 14 days post injection up to the end of the experiment. While spleen weight slightly affected, but bursa and caecal tonsil weights were increased at the last two weeks of the experiment. The highest phagocytic activity was at 14 days post injection with propolis (65% vs 59%). Also, there was increase in the stimulation index of the peripheral lymphocytes as detected by lymphocyte transformation in case of propolis group (2.61 vs 1.92 and 1.31 vs 22% at 7th and 28th days post injection). The delayed hypersensitivity skin test using propolis as sensitizing antigen showed specific stimulation to propolis after 72 hours after inoculation with specific antigen. Egyptian propolis gave the typical delayed hypersensitivity when inoculated to the sensitized chickens. The thickness index was 0.90 mm thickness if compared with nonsensitized control group 0.12 mm thickness (Hegazi et al., 1996).

Hegazi et al. (1995a) studied the effect of some bee products on immune response of chicken infected with virulent NDV. They found that, the mortality rate was reduced in-groups infected with virulent NDV and subsequently treated either with propolis or honey if compared with the infected groups only. It was clear that, propolis acts actively as antiviral agent than honey. The treatment with propolis and honey of NDV infected chicken groups induced increase in the antibody titres and phagocytic percentage. The inoculation of different antigens in the footpad of sensitized and non-sensitized chickens induced different degrees of footpad thickness as well as cellular and vascular reaction depending on the type of inoculation with NDV antigen. The reaction was typical Arthus type. In propolis group inoculated with NDV antigen, the reaction was different and the lymphocytes appeared to play the main role in this reaction which became a delayed type of hypersensitivity. Honey and propolis as management of chronic skin ulcers were used by Tossoun et al (1997).

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Chemical composition of propolis:  

The chemical composition is still insufficiently known. Propolis is a resin being dark green or brown in color with a pleasant flavor of poplar buds, honey, wax and vanilla but it can also have a bitter taste. When burnt, it exhibits a smell of aromatic resins of great value (Nikolaev, 1978). The chemical composition of propolis as well as its color and aroma are changed according to the geographical zones. Its color varies from yellowish-green to dark brown depending on its source and age (Ghisalberti, 1979). It can be likened to aromatic glue. It is hard and brittle when cold, but becomes soft and very sticky when warm. Ivanov (1980) studied the composition and physico- chemical properties of propolis. Also Kaczmarek, et al (1983) found B-Amylase in propolis. Bankova and co-workers (1982, 1983 & 1988) studied the chemical composition of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and concluded that propolis contains mainly polyphenolic compounds, flavones, flavonones, phenolic acid and esters. Fatty acids in propolis were studied by Polyakov et al (1988). 

Hegazi and Abd el Hady (1997) was analyzed Egyptian propolis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. 31 peaks were located of which 26 representing 25 compounds were identified, including 7 identified in Egyptian propolis for the first time. Abd El Hady (1994) and Abd El Hady & Hegazi (1994) found that the Egyptian propolis constituents present are phenolic acid esters (72.7 %); phenolic acids (1.1 %); aliphatic acids (2.4 %); dihydrochalcones (6.5 %); Chalcones (1.7 %); flavanones (1.9 %); flavones (4.6 %) and tetrahydrofuran derivatives (0.7 %). It was clear that phenolic acid esters are present in a major quantity (72.7 %). Christov et al., (1998) and Bankova et al., (1997) and my group with collaboration with Bulgarian group the chemical composition of Egyptian propolis sample by TLC and GC/MS. They identified 39 compounds, 8 being new for propolis. These results revealed that Egyptian propolis is characterized by the presence of unusual esters of caffeic acid with C12- C16 fatty alcohols, mainly saturated. These esters have not been found till now in propolis. Flavonoid aglycones and especially flavanones are typical components of poplar propolis. Till now there are no data about the presence of triterpenic alcohols in propolis. Recently we identified a series of triterpenes in Egyptian propolis, including the characteristic animal sterol precursor lanosterol. 

Propolis contain about: 55 % resins and balsams, 30 % waxes , 10 % etheric oils and 5% pollen. The components are rich in: Vitamins and mineral elements (Nikolaev, 1978) Propolis contains some minerals such as Mg, Ca, I, K, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe as well as some vitamins like B1, B2, B6, C and E, and a number of fatty acids. Also, it contains some enzymes as succinic dehydrogenase,glucose-6-phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphatase (Tikhonov and Momontova, 1987). Khayyal et al. (1993) suggested that propolis is a natural product produced by the honey bee. Its extract contains amino acids, flavonoids, terpenes and cinnamic acid derivatives. Abd El-Hady and Hegazi (1994) isolated other substances from Egyptian propolis such as aliphatic and phenolic acids. Nagy et al (1985) investigated the chemical constituents, particularly the flavonoid components, of propolis by the GC/MS method. 

The presence of small amounts of vitamins has been reported for propolis obtained in the USA: Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, Nicotinic acid, Pantothenic acid, Riboflavin, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Vitamin E. Detection of Vitamins are in variable amount : Vitamin B1: 4.5 µg/g of fresh matter , 6.5 µg/g of dry matter, Vitamin A: 6.1 IU/g of fresh matter, 8.1 IU/g of dry matter, Riboflavin: 20 µg/g of fresh matter, 28 µg/g of dry matter, Vitamin B6 5 µg/g of fresh matter, Moreira (1986) studied the chemical composition of propolis specially vitamins and amino acids. Copper 26.5 mg/kg, Manganese 40 mg/kg . The ash residue of the propolis has been shown to contain iron, Calcium, Aluminum, Vanadium, Strentium, Manganese and Silicon. Walker and Crane (1987) investigated the chemical constituents of propolis. Also Greenaway et al (1990) studied the composition and plant origins of propolis.

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Propolis Overview

Dr. Ahmed G. Hegazi (Prof. of Microbiology and Immunology, National Research Center, Egypt)
Email: ahmedgaffer@frcu.eun.eg // samira@mena.org.eg

Propolis, or “bee glue,” is a well-known substance that beekeepers find in their hives. Propolis according to research has shown to be effective against a variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and molds. It has been shown to be a non-specific immunostimulant.

Origin:

Propolis is made from substances collected by bees from the buds of trees (Willow, Poplar, Birch, Fir, Pine, Horse, Chestnut, ..etc). It is prepared from pollen. Researchers stated that propolis has originated either internal and external origins.

1- An Internal origin:

Propolis might be a resin residue forming from the first phase of pollen digestion in small organ placed between the sac and lower gut. All cells and specially the newly built ones are vernished with this internal propolis before the queen lays eggs in them (Caillas, 1978).

2- An External origin:

Bee forager harvested propolis only from the buds particularly from polar and older. It  has been found however, that they harvest it also from other trees science propolis has been found in hives in places where there are neither older nor polar. It is well known by all apiarists that the hives placed in forests have more propolis in them than those on the plain.

History:

Propolis was used specially in antiquity, in Egypt. There some thousand years BC propolis was very well known to the priests who had monopolized medicine, chemistry and art of mummifying corpses. The fact that propolis was also known to the old Greeks is demonstrated by the very Greek name of it (Makashvili, 1978). The first head the opinion that bees harvest propolis from resin of willow buds, of poplar, wild chestnut and other plants and other writer assumed that bees harvest it from Styrax (Makashvili, 1978).

The Holy Qur’an has a long Sorat with the name of bees (Al Nahl). The Ayahs number 68-69 In the name of God Most Gracious, Most Merciful (68) “And thy Lord taught the Bee to build cells in hills, On trees and in (men’s) habitations; (69) Then to eat of all The produce (of the earth), And find with skill the spacious Paths of its Lord: there issues From within their bodies A drink of varying colors, Wherein is healing for men: Verily in this is Sign For those who give thought”.

Abu Ali bin Sina (Avicenna) distinguishes two kind of wax in his will known work The Canon Medical Science the clean and the black wax. The clean wax is that which composes the comb wells where the bees rear the brood and store the honey and the black was is the filth the hive. It is clear enough that the black wax is propolis that after Avicenna’s testimony has the characteristic of eliminating the spikes. It also rarefies, cleans and Soaks. He also writes that by its strong smell, the black wax makes you sneeze.

In Folk Georgian medicine, they used ointments with propolis to cure some diseases. There was the custom of placing a propolis cake on the belly button of the newborn baby and also they rubbed children’s toys with propolis. Also in folk medicine, the use of propolis is widely known especially for the treatment of corns. People inhale propolis in case of affections of respiratory tracts and of the lungs. It is also efficient for burns and angina. The therapeutic characteristics of the propolis have been well known for a very long time. This is explained by its very pronounced anti-microbial

characteristics. Propolis was used effectively on wounds by doctors during the Anglo-Boer war and during The World War II. It was also used in hospitals. From 1969 Orthodox medicine in USSR accepted the use of propolis 30 % (30 % alcoholic solution of propolis). It is produced by the pharmaceutical product plant in Tallinn (Makashvili, 1978). 

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Satu dari dua syarat menjadi member MLM PT MNI adalah membeli produk minimal 1 paket seharga Rp 550,000. Nilai produk ini jika tidak mempertimbangkan peluang penghasilan yang diperoleh, kemungkinan tergolong mahal untuk harga suplemen kesehatan. Kemungkinan pula ada diantara ANDA yang menilai bahwa harga itu memang wajar namun bagi ANDA tergolong sulit mengeluarkan modal awal untuk bergabung 1 paket Rp 580,000 secara tunai.

Nah, saudara, bergabung secara patungan yang saya gagas sejak tahun 2007 ini mungkin menjadi jawaban. Saya gunakan Melia Propolis sebagai produk untuk bergabung secara patungan. Hanya perlu 4 langkah untuk membuat 3 orang berpatungan menjadi member MLM PT MNI dan selanjutnya membuat MLM ini sebagai sumber penghasilan, memperoleh kesehatan dan kebugaran serta sarana membangun persahabatan bisnis yang kompak, massive dan dapat merambah ke berbagai wilayah di seluruh Indonesia.

Untuk meyakinkan ANDA tentang membership patungan ini perlu saya ringkaskan keistimewaan MLM PT MNI sebagai berikut:
Slide2 Slide3
Demikianlah potensi MLM PT MNI yang sangat luar biasa. Membership berlaku selamanya dan diwariskan dengan biaya murah, hanya Rp 30,000. Pembayaran bonus harian menjamin biaya operasional bagi yang menjalankan bisnisnya dengan serius dan fokus. Setelah memahami potensi yang luar biasa tersebut, langkah pertama ANDA adalah mengajak dua teman Anda berpatungan masing-masing Rp 200,000 untuk bergabung satu membership. Berhubung pemrakarsanya ANDA maka nama ANDA-lah yang didaftarkan dengan dana patungan tersebut. Saya misalkan ANDA adalah Si Merah.
Slide4

Setelah terkumpul, segera isi formulir seperti yang akan saya sampaikan di bawah, lalu kirimkan ke denggleng@yahoo.com dan transfer dana Rp 580,000 (plus ongkos kirim untuk wilayah di luar JABODETABEK) ke salah satu rekening saya (a.n. Winarso D Widodo). Produk akan segera saya kirimkan ke alamat ANDA, dan setelah ANDA terima segera lakukan tiga langkah berikutnya sehingga dua teman ANDA menjadi member dan salah satu keluarga dekat dari ANDA bertiga menjadi frontline dari teman ANDA yang menjadi member terakhir. Jika aktivitas merekrut dan mempromosikan produk dan sistem MLM PT MNI ini konsisten ANDA jalankan bertiga, tidak menutup kemungkinan kelompok patungan ANDA akan menjelma menjadi persaudaraan bisnis dengan passive income jutaan rupiah per hari yang dapat ANDA manfaatkan untuk membangun BISNIS lain yang menjamin MASA DEPAN ANDA sekeluarga.

Langkah-langkah selanjutnya saya tampilkan dalam bentuk Thumb-nails berikut. Klik untuk memperoleh slide dengan ukuran yang mudah dibaca. Selamat menjalankan BISNIS PATUNGAN ANDA. Salam Sukses dari Bogor.
Slide5 Slide6

Slide7 Slide8

FORMULIR MEMBERSHIP PATUNGAN:

  1. Nama (sesuai di rekening bank):
    1. Nama_ANDA : ……………………..
    2. Nama_Teman1 : …………………….
    3. Nama_Teman2 : ……………………..
  2. No. KTP/SIM ANDA: ………
  3. Alamat: ………… Kode Pos: ……..
  4. No. HP: ………..
  5. Nama Bank: …………  Cabang/KCP/Unit: ……….
  6. Ahli Waris: ………………..  Hubungan Keluarga: ……….
  7. Nama Ibu Kandung: ……………. Tanggal lahir: …….
  8. Sponsor: WINARSO D WIDODO MS DR IR  No.Anggota/ID: kosongkan
  9. Upline: (kosongkan, akan saya isi upline terdekat dengan domisili ANDA)
  10. Cabang: (kosongkan)
  11. Produk: PROPOLIS:  1      / HGH: (kosongkan)  Rp: 580,000

Copy Paste ke e-mail Body, kemudian kirimkan ke denggleng@yahoo.com. Dana Rp 580,000 ditambah ongkos kirim (ongkos kirim ke Jabodetabek GRATIS…!),  dapat ditransfer ke (pilih salah satu):

  1. BCA KCP JEMBATAN MERAH No.Rek.: 6820242554
  2. BANK MANDIRI KCP SURYAKENCANA BOGOR: 133-00-0495727-0
  3. BNI BOGOR: 0003396033
  4. BRI KCP IPB BOGOR: 0595-01-004267-50-0

Setelah transfer, mohon memberitahukannya via SMS ke 0819-31101719.

Setelah transfer dana saya konfirmasi, produk akan segera dikirim ke alamat ANDA oleh STOKIS kami.

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Kualitas hidup manusia sejalan dengan bertambahnya usia, selalu mengalami kemunduran. Ada dua faktor penyebab kemunduran, yaitu faktor eksternal yang sulit untuk diatasi dan faktor internal yang hanya dapat dihambat. Faktor eksternal terdiri atas: inflasi (bagaimana mengatasinya sudah ditulis pada Tips #1), lingkungan hidup yang semakin tidak sehat, dan PENSIUN. Manusia yang bekerja suatu saat pasti ‘harus berhenti’ bekerja, bahkan mungkin lama sebelum meninggal, yang tentu saja sangat menurunkan kualitas hidup yang bersangkutan. Hidup berkualitas adalah hidup sehat sejahtera dan produktif, meskipun sudah ‘berhenti’ bekerja. Hidup berkualitas adalah cara hidup yang mampu mengatasi atau menghambat bekerjanya faktor internal, yaitu USIA.

Pada tulisan ini saya akan menawarkan SOLUSI yang sangat menjanjikan untuk memperoleh ‘dana’ PENSIUN sekaligus menjadi solusi mengatasi faktor internal. Satu-satunya jalan agar Anda dapat memanfaatkan solusi yang saya tawarkan ini adalah dengan BERGABUNG menjadi member MLM PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera. Kenapa saya tawarkan PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera? Mari kita cermati peluang bisnis luar biasa dahsyat ini.

Peluang Bisnis MLM PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera:

  1. Perusahaan Legal dengan SIUPL
  2. Produk Legal di seluruh wilayah NKRI dengan nomor registrasi Badan POM Kementerian Kesehatan RI
  3. Marketing Plan sangat sederhana dengan format Binary
  4. Modal kecil, sekali dikeluarkan berlaku selamanya dan diwariskan, minimal Rp 635,000
  5. Potensi penghasilan luar biasa besar, cepat dibayarkan, adil dan Transparan:
    1. Bonus Merekrut (Sponsor) Rp 100,000 untuk setiap paket produk yang dibeli oleh member baru yang direkrut
    2. Bonus Jaringan (Leadership) hingga Rp 850,000 per hari  (Rp 17,000,000 sebulan) dari setiap unit bisnis yang dimiliki (seseorang bisa bergabung dengan jumlah unit bisnis yang tak terbatas)
    3. Bonus Bulanan (unilevel) minimal Rp 86 juta SEBULAN, jika jaringan tumbuh sehat dan sempurna
    4. Produk belanja ulang otomatis maksimal senilai 10 botol Propolis setiap bulan dari setiap unit bisnis yang dimiliki.

Sekarang mari kita lihat peluang penghasilan hanya dari Bonus Jaringan. Bonus Jaringan ini memungkinkan seorang member memperoleh PASSIVE INCOME nyata hingga Rp 850,000 SEHARI atau Rp 20 juta SEBULAN.

Anda hanya memerlukan dua member aktif yang menduplikasi Anda untuk memperoleh penghasilan hingga Rp 20 Juta Sebulan dari modal Anda hanya Rp 635,000. Memang pada tahap awal, mencapai level 5 sempurna, cukup berat. Akan tetapi, sesuatu usaha itu yang sangat menentukan adalah MELAKUKANNYA dengan FOKUS dan SEMANGAT. Yakin saja bahwa Format Binary itu multiplikasi jaringan akan berlangsung dua kali lipat setiap bertambah level.

Jika level lima terlewati, yakin saja bahwa tambahan unit bisnis di kaki A dan B masing-masing 10 paket SEHARI dapat berlangsung otomatis. Kemudian Anda dapat memanfaatkan sebagian BONUS HARIAN untuk membeli ulang produk sebagai tambahan UNIT BISNIS di Jaringan Anda sendiri. Letakkan, misalnya 2 paket di kaki A dan 2 paket di kaki B, maka jika tambahan 4 unit bisnis itu Anda garap seperti Anda mengerjakannya pada unit bisnis pertama Anda, maka lima level di bawah 4 unit bisnis baru Anda itu akan menyumbangkan tambahan penghasilan masing-masing Rp 20 juta SEBULAN.

Inilah tips dan strategi yang saya tawarkan untuk Anda agar memperoleh dana PENSIUN diluar uang pensiun dari tempat Anda bekerja kelak, senilai 5 x Rp 20 juta SEBULAN. Modal awal Anda tetap hanya Rp 635,000. Kemudian Anda mengeluarkan bonus harian Anda senilai 4 x Rp 605,000 = Rp 2,420,000. Jika diperhitungkan Anda berhasil mencapai 5 level di unit pertama dalam waktu 4 bulan, maka paling lambat 20 bulan SEJAK ANDA MENGELUARKAN MODAL Rp 635,000, Passive Income hingga Rp 85 juta sebulan dapat Anda nikmati, menjamin gaya hidup, kesejahteraan, kesehatan dan kualitas Hidup Anda sekeluarga…

Mari segera bergabung. Caranya sangat mudah!

Klik segera http://kdpbiz.com/?page_id=217 lalu lakukan order, kirimkan data Anda dan transfer Rp 580,000 ditambah dengan ongkos kirim produk dari Bogor ke Alamat Anda (sampai kecamatan). Akses tarif kirim dari Bogor ke Alamat Anda di www.jne.co.id. Konfirmasi setelah transfer ke 0819-31101719. Dan setelah bergabung segera lakukan aktivitas duplikasi 1-2 untuk jaringan Anda.

Selamat bergabung, sampai jumpa di kehidupan yang lebih berkualitas.

 

Manajement PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera, Mengucapkan Selamat, Hari Ini Anda Memperoleh Bonus tgl 2 JULI 2011 Sebesar Rp 989,000 Sukses Untuk Kita Bersama….

Dapatkan SMS seperti itu setiap HARI…:-)

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Inflasi adalah alami. Dia adalah konsekuensi logis dari fenomena ‘baru’ dan ‘lawas’ atas berbagai benda. Benda baru tentu bernilai lebih mahal dibanding benda lawas. Nilai benda sekarang diterjemahkan dengan ‘harga mata uang’. Jadi inflasi selalu ada jika ‘uang’ dijadikan satu-satunya penentu nilai benda-benda. Laju inflasi tahunan, adalah penurunan nilai rata-rata atas semua jenis barang yang dinilai dengan ‘uang’. Dengan bahasa sederhana, jika dibalik, maka nilai mata uang selalu mengalami penurunan setiap tahun dibandingkan dengan nilai tetapnya yang umumnya berupa nilai jual ‘logam mulia’.

Inflasi, dengan demikian merupakan faktor ‘gawat’ kehidupa manusia masa kini. Harian Kompas di rubrik Ekonomi menyebutnya sebagai MUSUH MASYARAKAT. Dalam arti, kebutuhan biaya hidup seseorang akan semakin meningkat dari tahun ke tahun. Inflasi yang terkait dengan biaya hidup akan semakin gawat bagi orang-orang yang menjelang masa pensiun. Logikanya, ketika memasuki usia pensiun, penghasilan tentu saja turun drastis, sementara itu biaya  hidup semakin tinggi pada kondiri produktivitas semakin turun dengan bertambahnya usia. Tabel berikut adalah ilustrasi biaya hidup bulanan Anda jika nilai inflasi tahunan 5, 10 dan 11 persen dan biaya hidup bulanan Anda pada tahun 2011 ini Rp 5 juta.

Bagaimana Mengatasi Inflasi?

Dalam rangka mengatasi masalah biaya hidup tersebut, terutama bagi Anda yang dalam masa persiapan pensiun,  tentu harus segera Anda usahakan upaya untuk mengatasi laju inflasi dan menghadapi usia pensiun. Paling tidak ‘gaya hidup’ Anda yang sekarang masih dapat dipertahankan bahkan menjadi lebih baik pada waktu Anda memasuki usia pensiun. Tetapi, usaha apakah itu?

Dengan artikel ini saya tawarkan bisnis MLM PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera sebagai solusinya. Mengapa harus PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera? Jawabannya sederhana dan hanya ada dua macam. Pertama, PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera memasarkan dua macam suplemen kesehatan yang bekerja sinergis membantu penyembuhan penyakit dan selanjutnya memelihara kesehatan Anda. Kedua, PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera adalah perusahaan MLM terbaik di Indonesia saat ini dengan bonus besar, transparan, adil dan cepat dibayarkan, tanpa memberlakukan TUTUP POIN dan tanpa memberlakukan peringkat. Anda tidak dikejar-kejar target mengumpulkan POIN BELANJA dan tidak perlu menjaga peringkat dalam jaringan.

Modal yang diperlukan hanya Rp 635,000 sekali dikeluarkan dan berlaku selamanya dan diwariskan. Peluang penghasilan mencapai Rp 850,000 sehari. Tabel berikut menunjukkan peluang yang Anda dapatkan jika bergabung dengan kami di PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera dengan modal minimal sebesar Rp 635,000 dengan format duplikasi 1-2, maksudnya segera sejak bergabung Anda merekrut 2 member baru untuk kaki kiri dan kaki kanan Anda (kaki A dan B), kemudian mengarahkan A dan B berbuat seperti Anda, merekrut 2 member.

Dapat Anda lihat, jika proses duplikasi 1-2 berjalan degan mulus, maka setelah jaringan mencapai level 5, maka passive income Rp 850,000 per level akan Anda peroleh. Pada tahap awal mungkin memang lambat. Pemenuhan satu level mungkin perlu seminggu bahkan sebulan atau lebih. Namun perlu Anda ingat bahwa format jaringan PT Melia Sehat Sejahtera adalah BINARY, yang berarti potensi duplikasi setiap level adalah kelipatan dua. Artinya percepatan perkembangan jaringan berlipat dua setiap penambahan satu level.

Dengan percepatan level kelipatan dua tersebut, sangat memungkinkan pencapaian setiap level terjadi setiap hari. Maka tambahan omset 10 paket produk di kaki kiri dan 10 paket produk di kaki kanan sangat mudah terwujud.

Anda juga memiliki peluang menambah unit bisnis dengan memanfaatkan sebagian bonus harian tersebut untuk ‘membeli ulang’ dengan tanpa dibatasi sampai berapa pun unit bisnis yang Anda inginkan. Jika setiap unit tambahan tersebut dapat Anda kembangkan seperti unit pertama, maka peluang penghasilan Anda menjadi Rp 850,000 dikalikan jumlah unit bisnis yang Anda miliki.

Nah Saudara sekalian, terutama Anda yang sedang bersiap-siap memasuki usia pensiun, mari segera bergabung. Atasi ‘ancaman’ inflasi bersama kami. Nikmati kesehatan dan kehidupan lebih berkualitas.

Caranya sangat mudah. Klik segera http://kdpbiz.com/?page_id=217 lalu lakukan order, kirimkan data Anda dan transfer Rp 580,000 ditambah dengan ongkos kirim produk dari Bogor ke Alamat Anda (sampai ibukota kecamatan). Akses tarif kirim dari Bogor ke alamat Anda di www.jne.co.id. Konfirmasi setelah transfer ke 0819-31101719. Dan setelah bergabung segera lakukan aktivitas duplikasi 1-2 untuk jaringan Anda.

Selamat bergabung, sampai jumpa di kehidupan yang lebih berkualitas.

 

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Secara ringkas menjalankan bisnis MLM PT Melia Nature Indonesia dengan 1 unit bisnis hanya memerlukan 3 aktivitas sederhana:

  1. Mendaftarkan diri sebagai member Rp 580,000 (minimal)
  2. Mengonsumsi produk (Propolis atau Melia Biyang) dan menginformasikan kepada teman, keluarga, kolega dan orang-orang lain, dan mengajak (minimal) 2 member baru
  3. Membuat kedua member itu melakukan hal yang sama dengannya, yaitu merekrut (minimal) 2 member baru

Jika tiga langkah diatas dapat berlangsung dengan baik, maka setelah jaringan berkembang lima level (member memiliki 16 downline kiri dan 16 downline kanan), dan perekrutan dua member baru dapat terjadi seminggu sekali, maka setiap minggu member tadi akan memperoleh bonus jaringan senilai Rp 850,000. Dalam sebulan berarti dia akan memperoleh cash Rp 2,630,000 plus 10 botol Propolis.

Dengan berkembangnya jaringan, maka tidak menutup kemungkinan tercapainya tambahan unit bisnis 10 kiri dan 10 kanan terjadi setiap hari. Berarti ada kemungkinan member tadi memperoleh penghasilan senilai Rp 850,000 setiap hari HANYA dari modal awal sekali dikeluarkan senilai Rp 580,000. Sungguh sangat LUAR BIASA bukan?

Maka mari segera bergabung. Lakukan tiga langkah di atas. Untuk memperkuatnya, silakan bergabung di http://groups.yahoo.com/group/kdpbiz/ sekarang juga. Mari berdiskusi di sana. Mari bersama mencapai puncak kesuksesan. Hidup sehat, sejahtera dan berkualitas…

Mari segera bergabung. Unduh formulir aplikasi dan contoh pengisiannya di:

ANDA ingin MLM yang baik dan benar? Yang tanpa Tutup Poin? Yang dengan bonus harian plus automaintenance sesungguhnya? Mari segera bergabung. Klik segera http://www.propbiyang.net/daftar/index.html. Unduh formulir aplikasinya, lakukan tahapan ORDER – TRANSFER dan kami akan DELIVER produk sampai ALAMAT ANDA. MUDAH, MURAH berbonus MELIMPAH-RUAH…..

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Dalam sebuah hadist, Nabi Muhammad SAW, menyatakan, “bayarlah upah buruh sebelum kering keringatnya“. Hadist ini dipercaya sebagai pesan moral Nabi SAW kepada ummatnya di kemudian hari, untuk menghargai keringat buruh. Buruh dalam hal ini adalah pekerja, karyawan dan lain-lain jenis pekerjaan yang bernilai UPAH. Tetapi apa yang terjadi sekarang? [Eh, sebelum salah tanggapan, ini bukan bermaksud ikut-ikut meramaikan musibah Ny. Ruyati, TKI Arab Saudi dari Bekasi itu, lho…]

Banyak praktik-praktik penundaan pembayaran upah. Upah bisa bermacam-macam, termasuk fee marketing bagi para tenaga sales representative, sampai kepada para member Multi Level Marketing. Padahal pesan moral sabda Nabi di atas jelas-jelas menunjukkan bahwa upah, komisi, fee dan lain-lain ‘tanda jasa’ itu terjadi jika si pemberi upah memperoleh OMSET. Sederhananya orang jualan sayur keliling lah…. setelah tawar menawar, pembeli memutuskan membeli dagangannya, maka ketika terjadi transaksi (pembeli menyerahkan uang, tukang sayur menyerahkan sayuran), maka ketika itu pula si tukang sayur telah menerima keuntungan jualannya. Si pembeli memperoleh manfaat uangnya berupa sayuran yang dia beli. Beres sudah! Transaksi sah!

Demikian pun dengan penjual jasa. Misalnya tukang bangunan mengerjakan pembangunan rumah, dengan perjanjian dibayar upahnya secara harian. Maka, jika tidak ada permintaan dari si Tukang, begitu sore hari pekerjaan hari itu selesai sampai jam 16.00 misalnya, si pengguna jasa tukang harus membayar upah hariannya. Atau memang ada persetujuan antara kedua belah pihak, bahwa upah dibayarkan sehari kemudian, atau upah dikumpulkan dibayarkan setiap hari Sabtu… dan jika kedua belah pihak sepakat, tidak jadi soal, mau dibayar segera, seminggu kemudian atau kapan pun, asal ada kesepakatan antara tukang bangunan dan pengguna jasanya.

Bagaimana dengan dunia MLM?

Untuk melihat bagaimana operasional pembayaran “keringat member” oleh perusahaan, ada baiknya kita lihat gambar tabel berikut.

Secara ringkas gambar tabel di atas menunjukkan ada ‘kerja’ dan ada waktu pembayaran upah. Kerjanya adalah aktivitas member merekrut (menyeponsori) member baru. Nilai ‘upah’ sudah ditentukan sejak awal dan disetujui oleh member sebesar Rp 100,000 untuk setiap ‘paket produk’ yang berhasil ditransaksikan kepada member baru. Kapan ‘upah merekrut’ itu dibayar oleh perusahaan? Hanya sehari! Artinya jika member yang direkrut didaftarkan (diposting datanya) ke perusahaan hari Senin, maka member perekrut memperoleh transfer uang sebesar Rp 100,000 (tepatnya 70% dikurangi Rp 5,000 untuk biaya bank) hari Selasa. Posting Selasa dibayar Rabu, posting Rabu dibayar Kamis, posting Kamis dibayar Jumat, dan posting Jumat dan Sabtu dibayar Senin minggu berikutnya.

Kenapa selisih sehari? Tidak pada hari itu juga? Seandainya pembayaran dilakukan otomatis dan bank seketika dapat menerima pembayaran, maka pembayaran ‘upah merekrut’ itu dapat dilakukan bersamaan dengan posting data. Akan tetapi sistem perbankan kan perlu proses dan waktu, begitu pula entry data member baru yang setiap hari jumlahnya bisa puluhan ribu, tentunya perlu proses dan waktu juga. Jadi wajar kalau transfer ‘upah merekrut’ yang setara dengan hasil ‘keringat member’ itu dibayarkan 1 hari bank setelah transaksi.

Hal yang dapat dipastikan dari sistem pembayaran bonus di PT Melia Nature Indonesia adalah yang paling transparan, paling langsung dan paling sederhana dibandingkan dengan sistem pembayaran bonus dari perusahaan MLM lainnya. PT Melia Nature Indonesia tidak memberlakukan hitungan POIN, sehingga tidak ada TUTUP POIN. Jika dianalogikan dengan hasil kerja para buruh, PT Melia Nature Indonesia sudah mendekati makna substansi hadist Nabi tentang upah buruh di atas.

Selain bonus merekrut (yang dapat dianalogikan dengan upah buruh) masih ada lagi dua bonus lain yang menanti Anda semua. Pertama Bonus Leadership dan kedua Bonus Unilevel. Bonus Leadership dibayar harian, Bonus Unilevel dibayar bulanan. Mari segera bergabung…. Hanya dengan bergabunglah Anda dapat memanfaatkan peluang dahsyat ini…

Caranya sangat mudah! Unduh formulir aplikasi dan contoh pengisiannya di:

ANDA ingin MLM yang baik dan benar? Yang tanpa Tutup Poin? Yang dengan bonus harian plus automaintenance sesungguhnya? Mari segera bergabung. Klik segera http://www.propbiyang.net/daftar/index.html. Unduh formulir aplikasinya, lakukan tahapan ORDER – TRANSFER dan kami akan DELIVER produk sampai ALAMAT ANDA. MUDAH, MURAH berbonus MELIMPAH-RUAH…..

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?

MLM PT Melia Nature Indonesia (PT MNI) adalah MLM dengan format Binary seperti gambar di sebelah kiri. Setiap distributor hanya memiliki dua Kaki (Legs); kaki kiri (A) dan kaki kanan (B). Sistem binary PT MNI membolehkan A dan B atas nama satu orang member. Misalnya ANDA menjadi member bergabung dengan 3 paket sekaligus, maka jaringan dasar tersebut menjadi ANDA-01 dengan frontline ANDA-02 sebagai kaki kiri dan ANDA-03 sebagai kaki kanan.

Bagaimana cara bergabung di PT MNI? Untuk bergabung hanya diperlukan Dua Langkah yaitu:

  1. Mendaftarkan diri dengan biaya Rp 30,000 yang dibayarkan sekali untuk selamanya; selama PT MNI eksis.
  2. Membeli produk PT MNI minimal 1 paket (Rp 550,000); dengan jumlah pembelian awal sekaligus dibatasi sebanyak 15 paket. Selanjutnya ANDA dapat menambah unit bisnis berapa pun dengan posisi dimana pun dalam jaringan ANDA sendiri.
  3. Jadi untuk bergabung di PT MNI diperlukan dana (modal) awal minimal Rp 580,000 (1 paket = 1 unit bisnis) .

Apa yang ANDA dapat dengan uang membership Rp 30,000?

Dari perusahaan, uang Rp 30,000 ANDA akan dikembalikan perusahaan dalam bentuk:

  1. ID-card dan password untuk akses RUANG ANGGOTA di website perusahaan www.melianature.com yang berlaku selamanya. Pada ruang anggota, ANDA akan memperoleh informasi tentang PT MNI, perkembangan jaringan ANDA, nilai bonus dan lain-lain informasi penting tentang bisnis ANDA di PT MNI.
  2. Buku panduan bisnis dan profile perusahaan, satu-satunya starter kit dari PT MNI yang sederhana, lugas dan sangat fair.
  3. Dua lembar brosur resmi dari perusahaan dan dua lembar formulir pendaftaran (untuk calon frontlines ANDA) setiap lembar untuk 2 orang member baru; mencerminkan BETAPA RINGAN AKTIVITAS distributor PT MNI, minimal merekrut 2 member untuk dijadikan frontlines di kaki kiri dan di kaki kanan ANDA

Apa peluang Anda dengan bergabung 1 paket?

Bergabung dengan membeli 1 paket produk, berarti Anda memiliki satu hak bisnis senilai Rp 550,000 plus hak akses RUANG ANGGOTA di website perusahaan www.melianature.com. Secara legal Anda memiliki satu bisnis MLM yang sangat transparan (marketing plan dan bonus plan-nya), data jaringan Anda dapat diakses 24 jam sehari, 7 hari seminggu. Potensi penghasilan dari bisnis 1 unit Anda adalah sebagai berikut:

  1. Peluang menyeponsori member baru pertama 2 orang, dengan peluang bonus sponsor Rp 200,000
  2. Peluang memperoleh bonus leadership hingga Rp 850,000 sehari
  3. Peluang memperoleh produk automaintain (belanja ulang otomatis) maksimal sebanyak 10 botol propolis sebulan
  4. Peluang memperoleh bonus unilevel, setelah jaringan berkembang mantab semua member memperoleh bonus harian hampir sebesar Rp 86 juta.

 Selain peluang-peluang yang bernilai uang tersebut, masih ada dua manfaat yang sangat berharga dengan menjadi member PT Melia Nature Indonesia, yaitu KESEHATAN PRIMA dan KEHIDUPAN SOSIAL BERMASYARAKAT yang berkualitas dan bermartabat. Dengan menyeponsori banyak orang di sekitar Anda, berarti ada kemungkunan Anda menjadi pembawa keberuntungan dan rejeki bagi orang-orang yang memerlukan.

Nah Anda ingin mengambil kesempatan dahsyat ini? 

Caranya sangat mudah!!!  Silakan unduh formulir pemesanan (Aplikasi), transfer dana, ditambah ongkos kirim (ongkos kirim ke Jabodetabek GRATIS…!), Produk akan kami kirim sampai alamat ANDA. Anda bingung mengisi formulir aplikasi? Silakan klik contoh pengisiannya di sini.

Kami hanya memasarkan Produk PT Melia Nature Indonesia dengan harga legal dari Perusahaan, sangat murah HANYA Rp 550,000 per paket. Pembelian perdana plus Rp 30,000 untuk keanggotaan. Pembelian selanjutnya per paket untuk pengembangan jaringan dan memperbesar peluang penghasilan ANDA…..!!! Anda membeli Produk Melia Nature Indonesia dengan HARGA LEGAL, berarti ANDA telah membantu orang-orang yang menggantungkan hidup dari ‘Bisnis MLM PT Melia Nature Indonesia’ dan sesuai dengan peraturan perundangan yang berlaku di negeri ini.

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DAHSYAT…!!!
Bagaimana menjadikan MLM sebagai mesin uang dengan bonus HARIAN.... Tanpa TUP POIN, tidak pakai peringkat-2an.... tidak juga janji reward muluk-muluk, cukup dengan SATU MACAM PENGHASILAN yaitu BONUS, Uang dan Produk....
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BOGOR DRAMAGA AGENCY
Jl. Johar I Blok C2 No. 23, Taman Pagelaran, Ciomas Bogor 16610
e-Mail: mssdramaga@yahoo.com
mssdramaga@gmail.com
Tel 0251-8634013

Contact Persons:
Ir Nuraeni (mssdramaga@yahoo.com)
0813-17908246; 0815-86104617; 081808678443
Dr Ir Winarso D Widodo, MS (wd_widodo@yahoo.com)
081931101719
UNDANGAN
Ingin hidup sehat di dunia yang semakin tidak sehat karena polusi, radiasi, jutaan virus, bakteri, jamur dan zat-zat racun lainnya yang siap menyerang Anda.

MLM dengan bonus HARIAN.... Tanpa TUTUP POIN, tanpa PERINGKAT.... hanya dengan 1 janji penghasilan  yaitu UANG....


Dapatkan caranya di Bogor Dramaga Agency, Jl. Johar I Blok C2 No. 23, Taman Pagelaran - Bogor. Setiap hari kerja jam 08.00 - 17.00.


Salam Sehat Sejahtera,
Ir Nuraeni
mssdramaga@yahoo.com; mssdramaga@gmail.com
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sejak 19 April 2011